Israel tensions ease as Netanyahu pauses judicial overhaul
Anti government demonstrators block streets and clash with police during a protest against plans by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's government to overhaul the judicial system, in Tel Aviv, Israel, Monday, March 27, 2023. Netanyahu has delayed his contentious judicial overhaul plan after a wave of mass protests. The Israeli leader said said he wanted "to avoid civil war" by making time to seek a compromise with political opponents. (AP Photo/Oded Balilty)
Laurie Kellman, The Associated Press
Published Tuesday, March 28, 2023 8:52AM EDT
Last Updated Tuesday, March 28, 2023 5:19PM EDT
TEL AVIV, Israel (AP) - Israel's rival political factions agreed to begin negotiations Tuesday after Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu paused a controversial judicial overhaul plan that had triggered unprecedented street protests and a spiraling domestic crisis.
The office of the figurehead president, Isaac Herzog, announced that he would host the negotiating teams for their first meeting late Tuesday to begin talks on a potential compromise plan. But whether they can reach an agreement in the coming weeks remained in question after a tumultuous period in which positions only appear to have hardened.
Three months of demonstrations against the overhaul plan intensified this week and Israel's main trade union declared a general strike, leading to chaos that shut down much of the country and threatened to paralyze the economy.
Netanyahu in a prime-time speech on Monday night acknowledged the divisions roiling the nation and announced a monthlong delay for the legislation. The announcement followed a spontaneous mass demonstration against his firing of his defense minister, who had spoken out against the judicial overhaul plan, and the sudden general strike.
“He understood that he's in a dead end,” said Yohanan Plesner, president of Israel Democracy Institute. “And Netanyahu, who is very experienced, understood that now is the time for correction.”
The pause brought a brief period of calm after a stormy stretch of mass protests and heavy opposition from influential sectors. Israeli business leaders, academics and military reservists have complained the overhaul was pushing Israel toward authoritarianism. Many of Israel's closest allies have also voiced concerns.
The U.S. ambassador, Tom Nides, said in a radio interview that the White House would soon invite Netanyahu to visit. Israeli media have reported that the U.S. was withholding an invitation as a sign of displeasure with Netanyahu and his new far-right government.
Nides said Netanyahu “obviously will be coming,” most likely after the weeklong Passover holiday beginning next week. “There's no question that the prime minister will come and see President Biden,” Nides said.
But the White House said Nides' comments were misinterpreted and there is no visit on the books. “Israeli leaders have a long tradition of visiting Washington, and PM Netanyahu will likely visit at some point,” the White House National Security Council said.
In his address, the premier said he wanted “to avoid civil war” and would seek a compromise with political opponents. Netanyahu spoke after tens of thousands of people demonstrated outside the parliament building in Jerusalem.
His announcement appeared to calm some of the tensions that have fueled months of unrest. But it failed to address the underlying issues that have polarized Israelis. Netanyahu leads the most right-wing government in Israeli history and and his allies have vowed to enact the legislation.
“I feel relief but with doubt,” Fega Gutman, Tel Aviv resident, said Tuesday. Netanyahu over the years “promised us a lot but didn't always fulfill, unfortunately.”
Some antigovernment protesters stepped aside, for the moment at least, but made clear their distrust of Netanyahu and his allies. A key group, however, declared it would hold a new protest later Tuesday and again on Saturday night in Tel Aviv, which has been its practice in the last three months.
“The protesters who take to the streets are not stupid,” the group known as the Umbrella Movement of Resistance against Dictatorship said in a statement. “Millions of citizens who have protested until now will not give up.”
A flurry of phone calls between rival opposition leaders followed Netanyahu's announcement and lasted into Tuesday morning, with several working groups named as the protests subsided and Israel's largest labor union called off its general strike.
“When there's an opportunity to avoid civil war through dialogue, I, as prime minister, am taking a timeout for dialogue,” Netanyahu said in his speech. He vowed to reach a “broad consensus” during the summer session of parliament, which begins on April 30.
Herzog said pausing the legislative blitz was “the right thing” and offered to oversee the negotiating teams. He spoke in separate phone calls with Netanyahu, opposition leader Yair Lapid and National Union Party Chairman Benny Gantz, his office said.
National Security Minister Itamar Ben-Gvir, an ultranationalist who has pushed for quick passage of the package, said he would respect the delay but vowed to pass the plan. “No one will scare us,” he tweeted.
The overhaul would give Netanyahu, who is on trial on corruption charges, and his allies the final say in appointing the nation's judges. It would also give parliament, which is controlled by his allies, authority to overturn Supreme Court decisions and limit the court's ability to review laws.
Netanyahu has argued that the overhaul is needed to rein in a liberal and overly interventionist court of unelected judges. But his opponents say the package would concentrate too much power in the hands of Netanyahu's allies. They also say that he has a conflict of interest as a criminal defendant.
Tens of thousands of people, largely secular, middle-class Israelis, have regularly joined mass protests against it.
The situation escalated on Sunday night after Netanyahu abruptly fired Defense Minister Yoav Gallant, who had urged him to put his plan on hold, citing concerns about damage to the Israeli military.
Chanting “the country is on fire,” furious protesters lit bonfires on Tel Aviv's main highway, closing the thoroughfare and many others throughout the country for hours. Demonstrators continued Monday outside the Knesset, or parliament, turning the streets surrounding the building and the Supreme Court into a roiling sea of blue-and-white Israeli flags dotted with rainbow Pride banners.
Departing flights from the main international airport were grounded, stranding tens of thousands of travelers. Large mall chains and universities closed their doors, and the union called for its 800,000 members to stop work in health care, transit, banking and other fields.
Israel's Palestinian citizens have largely sat out the protests. Many say Israel's democracy is tarnished by its military rule over their brethren in the West Bank and the discrimination they themselves face.
Even with the big issues standing, officials inside and outside Israel signaled relief that the pause had bought some time.
“I had a nice night of sleep last night, thank God,” Nides said. “This morning I'm optimistic and I applaud the move.”